The tiled stove is a special type of stove built usually tiled and refractory material which, like all the stoves, heated by radiation and works in woody biomass.
Internally consists of three major structures: the combustion chamber where the wood is placed and where the combustion takes place, the volume of which is directly proportional to the thermal power of the same; variable section consisting of a coil always in refractory material through which smoke passes resulting from the combustion, a coating majolica tiles.
The smoke enters the coil with a temperature of about 600 ° to get out at a temperature of about 150 ° -120 °. The coil can have two types of development:
horizontal, in which the plans diminish in height, while abandoning the combustion chamber, and similarly decrease the thickness of the dividers. The top floor finishes in the fireplace. This system requires openings for cleaning floors, otherwise it is necessary to remove the hat and some aspects of the plans for periodic maintenance.
vertical, in which the size of the vertical channels diminish with the path made by the smoke, and similarly decrease the thickness of the dividers. Openings are not necessary for the cleaning, the interior becomes dirty much less soot and normally falls to the bottom. Via metallic devices can temporarily reduce the flue gas path to facilitate the ignition in the days of low pressure. This technique allows to heat possibly also lower elements of the combustion chamber, such as the benches. The hat of these stoves, for safety reasons, must be lighter. Incorrect use of the stove, with a total premature closure of the air, in particular circumstances, may create flammable gas which sometimes generates a flashback. Therefore, it is prudent to provide a vent upwards, which reduces the damage to the stove and safeguard the unwary user.
The majolica tiles should be perfectly put together and linked by more metal hooks. Inside should be thoroughly covered in clay mixed with sand is not too thin. The drying must be done in a slow and natural that can last for months. Today we are also using special cements, designed for high temperatures, in order to dispel the tiles silicone sealants are used, again for high temperatures and in the colors you want.
It now seems certain that the current tiled stoves are derived directly from the bread ovens, the oldest are found in the 2500 BC These were constituted by a structure of flexible branches twisted and covered with clay in a tunnel shape, with the opening closed by a stone slab. In time this construction technique has evolved, but still today you can find models that, in addition to being used for heating, can be used as oven or as food warmers.
In Volkskunstmuseum of Innsbruck you can find a reconstruction of an ancient rustic stove of the sixteenth century from Oberrasen in Val Pusteria.
For the construction of stoves over the clay was used steatite, which still use some editors of South Tyrol, especially in curved areas around the muzzle. This rock, in addition to being particularly workable, has excellent resistance to high temperatures.
With the emergence and spread of tiled stoves began to acquire the current morphology. The first radiant panels were integrated into the structure of pots of clay. By the time the shapes of pots changed from cylindrical to a more square which allowed to reduce the spaces in clay and increase the radiant stove. Persisted always very pronounced concave shape to increase the surface. Already in the Gothic period outside the stoves were completely tiled, for aesthetic reasons the concave shape was reduced and replaced by reasons and pinnacles typical of the style of the time.
These stoves are built to a slow-burning, so they should never fired with a lot of wood because it would generate a small bonfire, leading to a rapid expansion with secure cracks in critical areas, and the deformation of the metal devices used to assist in starting the days of low pressure. The stoves large require two or three days to get in temperature. The first heating season, it must be modest and gradually increased until it reaches normal operating conditions. If the chimney is not optimal, it is recommended to choose a day of high pressure with temperatures well below the internal temperature of the premises. For example, early in the morning of a sunny day. This is because the natural flow of hot air coming out of the room by the fireplace flue gas helps a lot colder than usual to get out properly.
The wood must be absolutely dry, for security would be better not to use the wood purchased in the same year. The burning of green wood creates a glassy layer of soot, thicker with the move away from the combustion chamber, which isolates the perimeters greatly reducing the heating of the premises. The continued storage of vitrified soot resulting from the use of green wood in most seasons can lead to the narrowing of the connection between the stove and the chimney, which will seriously affect the operation and safety. To remove the glass layer is necessary mechanical action decided, before fighting to break the glass layer and after scratching with a wire brush or spatula. You will need to remove the cap of the stove, and also inspect the lower floors of the horizontal coil heaters. If the glass surface is also found in lower floors will have to remove part of the horizontal dividers. Before the next time you turn the clay used to seal the restoration must be dried properly.
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