4 December 2012 started the countdown for the transposition of 2012/27/UE, the new EU directive on energy efficiency. By 5 June 2014 Italy will have to set their own long-term goals beyond those provided in the cd "20-20-20 climate and energy package." Since the source of energy that is not consumed more sustainable, then, understand well why energy audits will become in the near-future-practice mandatory in order to achieve the ambitious goals in terms of efficiency and savings outlined by the Roadmap 2050 for the decarbonisation and denuclearization of the energy sector.
THE FAILURE OF CURRENT POLICIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE SCENARIO futuristic
To the States General of the Green Economy (XVI edition of the fair Ecomondo-Key Energy) has been made known that the incentive policies of upgrading the energy efficiency of existing buildings so far adopted by the Governments of the Member States have achieved, only in limited cases , interesting results.
In our country, for example, it was noted that the legislation on the energy certification of buildings rather has triggered the market "piece of paper" cheaper (outdoor climate shelter by phone only 35 €!) Race to the bottom animated more by 'naive cunning to save money in the short-term-that dall'avvedutezza to understand far more important-bill savings in the medium to long-term energy audits based on accurate, calibrated assessments of essential indoor comfort.
A fact: more than 40% of energy consumption in the European Community is recognized in the residential and tertiary sectors. Unfortunately, 70% of this share is due to power plants for heating and cooling of air in buildings. Considering that the plant engineering sector is growing thanks to aggressive policies-incentive-its consumption and the resulting CO2 emissions are not to be neglected and even more so if we consider the progressive increase of the temperature of the planet.
In buildings "sieve" has no sense retrain only plants, yet statistics show that so far this has been the prevailing trend compared to interventions aimed at upgrading the thermal performance of walls, roofs, windows and all that constitutes the building envelope. For example, to adjust the temperature of the environments wasting valuable non-renewable energy resources due to a widespread inefficiency casing; in particular it has been estimated that the dispersion of heat through walls and windows oscillates between 25% and 40% of the heating requirements.
Numerous studies have shown that investing on the improvement of comfort in the industry results in greater productivity, while in the housing in a more widespread prosperity.
Evidently, the crisis restrict the investment horizon and also the parameter being is not easy to quantify in economic terms, for which it is excluded a priori.
How many times has it happened to not find comfortable homes of hotels, restaurants, hospitals, offices and maybe then we happened to get sick?
Returning to the reasons for the Italian market distortions, well may have originated primarily from the absence of a national energy plan that can give certainty in the long run, as required by investors. Only last September is finally circulated unabozza of the National Energy Strategy (SEN), in which the primary energy consumption in 2020 are estimated to be down 4% compared to 2010 levels, while electrical signals are provided stable over the decade. By the end of the decade the planned investments will be: 72% of the € 180 billion allocated for upgrading the energy efficiency of the building stock and existing residential and commercial renewable energy sources, two compartments intended to interact more closely, while 28% is attributable non renewable sources.
The other reason, the failure of the policy of upgrading the energy efficiency, we troverebbenell'inefficacia audit system of certification of buildings by non-partisan organizations. It happens very often that an engineer is asked to certify should act under pressure from the client (generally the construction companies who are also real estate agents) such as a threat to his intellectual independence. In some regions, a leader in the certification of buildings, then dotatesi of a specific legislation sanctioning body, has even witnessed the consolidation of associations specializing in protecting assicurativadei certifiers members to help them deal with situations of conflict to conflict between certifications and counter.
PURPOSE OF THE AUDIT OF ENERGY
The energy audit is already in use in those businesses obliged to adopt the figure of the energy manager (annual energy consumption of more than 10Ktep). The energy audit is also instrumental to begin the certification process of the Internal Energy Management System, recently introduced by the UNI CEI EN ISO 50001:2011. In general, a diagnosis shows clear information on consumption, which may be stored for historical analysis and is for monitoring the performance of the building-plant system according to a management plan.
In the case of energy-consuming audit firm is used to analyze the specific consumption in order to build his real energy. Let us see what are the essential steps, which varies depending on: the company's volume, the complexity of the process and the availability of information.
• Verification of documents provided by the company and any additions
• Survey on the farm and collection information (surveys and measurements)
• Performance Verification detected
• Data processing and preparation of model
• Elaboration of the main technical and economic indicators
• Report of diagnosis accompanied by the relevant technical and economic assessments
The data collected in the company, either: consumption and energy costs, utilities, electrical, thermal, cooling and water (power requirements / hourly consumption, utilization factor, working hours, etc.). Allow the expert, who can also be a external consultant, to reconstruct the energy models. The models derived from the survey allow the division of powers and consumption by type of use (lighting, air conditioning, cold process and for cooling, compressed air, other services, process areas), by cost center, for electrical substation and department, by time of day and season. Subsequently, the energy situation observed is compared with the average parameters of consumption with the aim of identifying the priority improvements to reduce fuel consumption and costs, and in order to assess the technical and economic feasibility.
The diagnosis to detect any thermal irregularities, air infiltration or other inefficiencies of the building envelope, are based on a qualitative method that uses a thermographic examination regulated by the UNI EN 13187 of 1998.
THAT IS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF ENERGY?
In general, the energy audit is a set of measurements, using a special and varied instrumentation to return back to the photograph of the building-plant system, you want a home or do you want a business. In practice, the diagnosis is useful to verify that the performance of both the building envelope and both the plant, but also for acquiring information regarding the operational mode of the system by the end users.
We can say that is of little use a building designed with sophisticated technology if he is managed inefficiently, so as to generate significant negative externalities, eg due to a higher consumption of non-renewable resources-necessary to maintain adequate levels of comfort and environmental- the resulting increase in emissions.
THE NEW REGULATION OF ENERGY DIAGNOSIS
The Directive 2012/27/UE devotes the entire article 8 auditing and introduces compulsory in order to achieve the improved performance of the building envelope thermophysical and especially to make the actual energy savings in respect of its objectives and agreed Community level, for each Member State. Although our country is bound to promote the availability to all final customers of energy audits of high quality, cost-effective which will have to be carried out by independent qualified experts or accredited according to criteria of qualification, which we are waiting to know.
The Directive imposes a conditio sine qua non for the auditing has validity: each Member State must have in place a prior guarantee scheme and the quality control system of energy audits. This means that there must be a non-partisan able to verify the goodness of audits annually.
Through specific programs, Member States shall encourage: SMEs (small and medium enterprises, ed) to undergo energy audit and implementation of the recommendations resulting from the diagnosis. They can also establish support schemes for families-in-line with the EU Directive with the aim of spreading the benefits derived from energy efficiency, while engineers can establish forms of incentive targeted to their training (ecovoucher) as experts energy auditors.
WHOM ARE OBLIGED the Energy AUDIT AND WHAT NOT?
The main innovation of this Directive 2012/27/UE resides in the obligation of upgrading the energy efficiency of 3% of the surface of the properties owned by the central government by 2014. Large companies (excluding SMEs) must be prepared to undergo an energy audit, by 5 December 2015. Both PP.AA that large firms should be subject to an energy audit at least every four years from the date of the previous energy audit. Companies that are not SMEs and implementing a system of energy management or environmental (EMS type EMAS or ISO 14001)-certified by an independent body-are exempted provided that Member States should ensure that the management system concerned includes an energy audit on the basis of minimum criteria.
In Italy, the ESCO (Energy Service Company) are obliged to follow the dictates of UNI 11.428, concerning the minimum of energy audits (Annex VI). However, this rule does not define the specific requirements for energy audits relating to buildings, processes or transports.
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